Meaning: The meaning of Form I verbs is not specific (understandable since other verb forms are derived from it to create another word with a related meaning).
- Form I is the fundamental verb form in Arabic as it is the barest form with no additional letters added to the root (مُجَرَّدٌ = bare, stripped)
- The vowel on the second root letter on a Form I verb varies in the past and present tense – it could be fatha, kasra or dhammah (see the table)
- The present tense can be predicted from the pattern of the past tense (and vice verse – see the table)
- If the second letter has a dhamma in the present tense, then the imperative has dhamma on the alif
- Form I verbs can be transitive or intransitive (usually it’s one or the other)
- Form I can occasionally be doubly transitive (takes two objects)
- Verbs with the pattern فَعُلَ – يَفْعَلُ are always intransitive – the traits are ‘reflexive’
The boy grew up
- The meaning of this type of verb usually indicates one of the following :
- a state of being ( e.g. ثَقُلَ – to be heavy – ADJECTIVE: ثَقِيلٌ )
- the acquisition of something (e.g. كَبُرَ – to grow – ADJECTIVE: كَبِيرٌ)
- an increase of a certain quality (e.g حَسُنَ – to be good – ADJECTIVE: حَسَنٌ)
- Form I has many different verbal noun variations – one verb can have more than one verbal noun (usually one is used the most – the most commonly used verbal noun is the one indicated in the tables)
Strong Root Letters (صحيح)
*All the root letters are strong ‘صحِيح’
كَتَبَ= root: ك ت ب
شَرِبَ = root: ش ر ب
كََبُرَ= root: ك ب ر
Double Root Letters (مضاعف)
- When two root letters are the same and consecutive (double) it combines into one and a shaddah is put on the doubled letter.
دَلَّ= root: د ل ل = the 2nd and 3rd letters are the same
فَرَّ= root: ف ر ر = The 2nd and 3rd letters are the same
Hamza as a Root Letter (مَهْمُوز)
Words with HAMZAH (ء) as root letterh causes a few differences in the way the verb is conjugated.
أَكَلَ= root: أ ك ل – the first letter
Other VERBAL NOUNS of أَكَلَ include مَأكَلٌ، إِكْلَةٌ، أُكَالٌ، أَكَالٌ
They all share a similar meaning to أكْلٌ which is the most commonly used verbal noun out of the variations.
Weak Root Letters (مُعْتَل)
- If one of the root letters is a weak letter (ا / و / ي ), the pattern follows a similar pattern with a few differences. Notice the differences in the table.
وَضَعَ = root: و ض ع = the 1st letter is weak with a و
زَارَ = root: ز و ر = the 2nd letter is weak with a و
نَامَ= root: ن و م = the 2nd letter is weak with a و *notice how it doesn’t follow the exact same pattern as زَارَ
دَعَا = root: د ع و = the 3rd root letter is و
بَاعَ= root: ب ي ع = the 2nd letter is weak with a ي
بَنَى= root: ب ن ي= the 3rd letter is weak with a ي
نَسِيَ= root: ن س ي = the 3rd root letter is ي
رَأَى = root: ر أ ي = the 3rd root letter is ي
وَعِيَ= root:و ع ي = the 1st and 3rd letter is weak with و and ي
نَوَيَ= root: ن و ي= the 2nd and 3rd letter is weak with و and ي